CC 1420 Lecture 5: SX-70 trouble shooting – Undeveloped patch

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-title

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-icon

SYMTOM

instant-university_yellow-border

It is quite common to have undeveloped patch on your Polaroid / Impossible films. No matter you are taking photos with SX-70, 680 or 690 camera, you may have experienced undeveloped patch. It could be due to dried chemical, or uneven roller pressure. This is fairly normal. 

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#11

Why three chemical patches?

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#12

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-#2

It is because the Impossible film is vertically divided by three parts. When you take pictures with SX-70, two rollers push the chemicals out of the pouches, and let the chemicals to be evenly distributed on the image. Therefore, if the undeveloped patch is located at the centre of film, probably it means there is a problem on the middle chemical pack.

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-#1

 

POSSIBLE REASONS

instant-university_yellow-border

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-1-film-storage-#9

The earliest film from Impossible

The film production technique was not as mature as today’s, so problems arose. For example, PX70 First flush film was much likely to have undeveloped patch than the Impossible’s latest Color 600, White Frame 3.0. 

We recommend choosing films in a later phase like Color protection film and B&W 2.0. They have less chance to have undeveloped patch.

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-1-film-storage-#11

Film storage

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#9

If you place your films in a hot, humid place or even under sunlight, an unfavourable chemical reaction may result and lead to agglomeration of chemical. The rollers may not smoothly push the chemicals out and thus affecting the result image.

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-1-film-storage-#13

Rollers

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-2-daily-polaroid-sx-70-camera-cleaning-#2

Aside from the storage of film, there is also a possibility of splotchy rollers or damage of rollers that the chemicals could not be pushed out and distributed evenly on the picture.

 

SOLUTIONS

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-#6

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-#3

Your gesture

You can gently hold the film door (but don’t block the picture exit slot under front edge) when taking picture.

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-#4

Clean the rollers

Refer to lecture 2 >>

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-5-SX-70-undeveloped-patch-#5

Change Polaroid 680 / 690 rollers to new ones

Cleanliness of the rollers is utterly important. But there is one more thing, Dr. Love from The Impossible Project states that

“For any of you who happen to own an SLR 680, you know it is a beautifully well-crafted work of art of instant electronic machinery….it also tends to produce more ‘divots’ or [‘undeveloped patches’] than your friend’s SX-70 camera.

You may be wondering…why?

The simple answer here is the one thing in the ejection process that changes from the older SX-70 cameras to the SLR 680 and 690 model folding cameras, that is the rollers.

The roller set on these cameras are a little different than the ones found on the SX-70s. The rollers were changed to improve durability and grip on the film, but in the case of newer, more sensitive Impossible films, sometimes there is a less perfect spread of developer leaving the gap of paste at the top of the frame.”

Read more: http://bit.ly/VObMfv

So we highly recommend you to change the old rollers on Polaroid 680 / 690 to achieve the best performance!

Advertisements

CHEM 1110 Lecture 2: The chemistry of instant film – how it works?

instant-university_CHEM1110-lecture-2-the-chemistry-of-instant-film-title

instant-university_CHEM1110-lecture-2-the-chemistry-of-instant-film-icon

INTRODUCTIONinstant-university_yellow-border

In 2008, Polaroid closed their last factory manufacturing analog instant film. When people thought there was no film for Polaroid cameras anymore, a group of former Polaroid employee was willing to continue the business and save instant film from going outmoded. Yet, besides taking over the last surviving factory, they did not obtain any technology or recipe of producing instant film from Polaroid. They had to invent a brand new analog film by themselves.

instant-university_CHEM1110-lecture-2-the-chemistry-of-instant-film-#1

Stephen Herchen, The Impossible Project’s chemist

“Instant film is the world’s most chemically complex man-made thing. There’s nothing in the modern age which can do what it can do. It is an entire science and an entire art form unto itself.”
– Stephen Herchen, The Impossible Project’s chemist

When the film comes out and you are watching it develop, there are over hundreds of chemical reactions happening. In this lecture, you will learn how an instant film is developed in a chemistry approach. It is, in fact, a really dramatic process happening.

 

COMPOSITIONinstant-university_yellow-border

1. Silver bromide (AgBr) – sensitive to red, green or blue light
instant-university_CHEM1110-lecture-2-the-chemistry-of-instant-film-#2

2. Hydroquinone (C6H4OH2) – decorated dyes cyan, yellow, magenta, dark blue dye or dark room dye – each dye is paired up with a particular silver bromide

instant-university_CHEM1110-lecture-2-the-chemistry-of-instant-film-#3

(Credits: Durfo)


3. Potassium thiosulfate (K2O3S2) – developing agent
4. Potassium hydroxide (HKO) – developing dye
instant-university_CHEM1110-lecture-2-the-chemistry-of-instant-film-#4

 

PROCESSinstant-university_yellow-border

1. Light is capture by the camera lens and focus onto the film.

2. In the negative, there have to be something that can reach to that light and that chemical is called silver bromide (AgBr).

3. Moreover, in this negative, there are 3 dyes, each of those dyes is paired up with the particular silver bromide.

4. When the film is releasing, the rollers of camera squeeze the developing fluid inside the film.

5. The blue dye creates a darkroom environment. Those dyes come in contact with the developing fluid, in which they are able to migrate from the negative to the top of the film where they can be seen.

 

(Credits: Mercedes-Benz, PF Pictures, The Impossible Project)

HIST 1010 Lecture 3: “New” Polaroid Corporation (Since 1990’s)

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-title

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-icon

REVIEWinstant-university_yellow-border

Polavision did not sell well in retail shops and brought a huge financial crisis to Polaroid. Edwin Land submitted his resignation and left the company he had founded.

 

IN 1980’Sinstant-university_yellow-border

The 1980’s was a hard time to Polaroid. The company tried to reinvent itself without Edwin Land by shifting away from a dependence on consumer photography, a market that was steadily declining. It was forced to make wholesale changes. Over thousands of workers were fired and many manufacturing plants were shut down. Therefore, Polaroid sought to innovate in the declining market for instant photography.

 

IN 1990’Sinstant-university_yellow-border

In 1990’s, technology rose and dramatically changed the world of photography. 1-hour color film processing, single-used cameras from competitors, videotape camcorders, and digital cameras brought more choices to public. The rise of new technology has helped reduce the cost of print photography to a large extent.

Polaroid then turned to produce disposable cameras. At that time, many other competitors such as Kodak and Fujifilm were in the market.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-#3

Polaroid single-use camera with built-in flash (Credits: Polaroid)

The company planned to invent camera that can produce instant photos and 35mm negatives and another one that yields instant photos with digital images. Moreover, they moved the factories to less developed countries like China and other low-wage countries to keep costs down.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-#2

Polaroid Z2300 Instant Digital Camera (Credits: Polaroid)

 

IN 2000’Sinstant-university_yellow-border

In 2001, Polaroid released a small portable printer. It was used for advertisers like retailers and restaurants to reach cellphone users with printouts. The product brought them an extra revenue, along with sales of the device, and refills of the printout.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-#1

Polaroid PoGo Instant Digital Mobile Printer

Unfortunately, Polaroid went bankrupt in October 2001 and announced that they would stop producing instant films and cameras. On the other hand, a group of former employees of Polaroid bought its film factory in the Netherlands and formed a new filmmaking company called The Impossible Project.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-#4

The Impossible Project only takeovers the factory space and machines from Polaroid other than technology and techniques. So they have to create and produce new colour dyes.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-3-new-polaroid-corporation-#5

Instant films by The Impossible Project for Polaroid SX-70 and 600-type cameras

 

AT PRESENTinstant-university_yellow-border

“Polaroid has become more than a household name – it has become one of the most recognised and trusted lifestyle brands in the world.” – Scott W. Hardy, President and CEO of Polaroid

At present, Polaroid focuses in producing digital photographic products like Polaroid Snap Instant Digital Camera, Polaroid Cube Action Camera and Polaroid ZIP Instant Photoprinter. Hopefully Polaroid still has a role in the future of photography.

HIST 1010 Lecture 2: The Polaroid magic (1920’s – 1980’s)

instant-university_HIST1010-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-title

instant-university_HIST1010-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-icon

INTRODUCTIONinstant-university_yellow-border

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#12

Polaroid Corporation, which started in Cambridge, is best known for its instant films and cameras. You may not know that it’s initial market was polarised sunglasses. During this lecture, you are going to look through Polaroid’s heyday and its lasting impacts.

 

THE FOUNDER OF POLAROID – EDWIN LAND
instant-university_yellow-border

instant-university_HIST1010-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#1

Land set up a research laboratory at his home in his teenage, started experiments on the first light polarisers in sheet form and to establish the applied science of polarised light. He thought that a polariser would look like a sheet of plastic or glass and that would be practical and convenient to use. In 1929, Land obtained his first patent ever.

He founded the Land-Wheelright Laboratories with his professor to continue his polarisation studies. Later this lab was renamed the Polaroid Corporation. As head of the company, Dr. Land never diversified into other businesses, sold out to another company or borrowed money on a long-term basis.

 

MILESTONESinstant-university_yellow-border

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#3

1947

Polaroid Land Camera was demonstrated publicly

instant-university_HIST1010-lecture-1-edwin-land-life-in-an-instant-#1

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#4

1948

Polaroid Land Camera was put on sale before Christmas

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#13

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#5

1950

Black and White instant film was introduced

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#6

1960

15 second pictures and automatic exposure technology

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#2

1963

Color film and film cartridges

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#14

Edwin Land demonstrating Polaroid color instant photograhy (Credits: The Life Picture Collection)

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#3

1965

Low priced Swinger

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#15

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#4

Late 1960’s

Polaroid invited the world’s best-known photographers like Andy Warhol, Ansel Adams and William Wegman, providing them free film and studio space and asked them to take some photos and gave them few prints back in the Polaroid Artists Collection

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#10

Andy Warhol with Polaroid SX-70

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#5

1971

The Square Shooter was introduced

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#16

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#6

1972

SX-70 was introduced

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#11

Edwin Land with Polaroid SX-70 on the cover of LIFE

a pocket-sized, self-developing Polaroid camera + 1 inch thick, 7 inches long

A thin sheet contained 8 separated chemical sheets protected by an “opacifer” layer that kept out the sun’s rays while the picture developed outside the camera. Each of the 8 layers respond to a different light frequency when exposed, resulting in brilliant color. Because the dye was metallic, the finished product didn’t fade except when exposed to extreme light for prolonged periods. Polaroid’s main competitor, Kodak, has yet to master this difficult process in its own film.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#7

1977

Instant Home Movie camera was introduced

 

IMPACTinstant-university_yellow-border

Since Polaroid was established, the Eastman Kodak Company brought the Land polarisers as camera filters. Since Polaroid was incorporated, they began to graft polariser technology onto many products such as 3D movies and glare-reducing googles for dogs.

instant-university_HIST1010-lecture-1-edwin-land-life-in-an-instant-#5

The invention of instant camera changed the picture-taking habits of people around the globe. In response to his 3-year-old daughter’s bewilderment about why the camera could not produce a photo immediately, he was inspired to make “a camera that would produce developed photographs as soon as its shutter clicked”. He termed it instant photography.

instant-university_HIST1010-lecture-1-edwin-land-life-in-an-instant-#6

Time magazine has described the basic process for instant photography in this way: “A negative inside the camera is exposed and then brought into contact with a positive print sheet. Both are then drawn between a pair of rollers, which breaks a tiny pod of jelly-like chemicals that spread across the sheet, producing a finished picture in seconds.

During World War II (1939-1945), Polaroid designed and manufactured numerous products for military, including colored filters for rangefinders and periscopes and an infrared night viewing device polarising.

instant-university_HIST-lecture-2-the-polaroid-magic-#8

In 1947, Land demonstrated the Polaroid Land Camera with film publicly, and started selling during the Christmas season next year. The camera was a huge success and would remain on the market for 50 years thereafter. Polaroid’s products under Land gained wide acceptance. At present, there are still millions of followers on instant photography.

SFA 1203 Lecture 4: Fuji emulsion lift workshop

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-title

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-icon

WHAT’S MOREinstant-university_yellow-border

In this lecture, you will learn about how to do emulsion lift using Fuji instant films. It can be made using FP-100C and 8×10 films. In fact, the process is pretty similar to the Polaroid / Impossible film. The biggest difference between the two is their emulsions. Extra works are needed during the process.

 

WHAT YOU NEEDinstant-university_yellow-border

Instant photo x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-#1

Scissors x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-#2

Soft paintbrush x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-#2

Hair-dryer x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-#3

Tray of hot water (around 70°C / 160°F) x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-#4

Carrier surface
instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-#5

Acetate x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-4-fuji-emulsion-lift-workshop-#6

 

STEP-BY-STEPinstant-university_yellow-border

1. After taking a picture, pull film out and wait for like 1.5 minutes for full development. Then you can peel the negative image away from the positive.

2. Air dry the print until it is completely dry. Or use a hairdryer to speed up the drying process.

3. Cut all the white borders around the image.

4. Put the print face up into the hot water. Make sure the print is literally submerged. By rocking the trap back and forward, you will see some white bubbles appear on the image surface, and in about 4 minutes, the emulsion should start falling off from the print.

5. If the emulsion has not completely separating, pour some more hot water and continue the agitation. Use fingers to assist the separation, until the emulsion has totally come off.

6. Take a sheet of acetate and slide it under the emulsion, flatten the lift as much as you can.

7. Put the image on the carrier surface, at this time, the image should be in between of the carrier surface and the acetate.

8. Moisture the carrier with little water, put the acetate over the carrier where you want your image to be.

9. Carefully remove the acetate.

10. Apply the acrylic medium (glass gel medium is fine as well) with a small brush on the image area.

11. Air dry the finishing piece overnight and you are done!

SFA 1203 Lecture 3: Polaroid / Impossible emulsion lift workshop

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-title

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-icon

WHAT IS IT?instant-university_yellow-border

Emulsion lift (also known as emulsion transfer) is an interesting photographic technique. By using this method, you can transfer your image onto a completely different surface like mug, paper, t-shirt, or tote bag, for creative printmaking.

It is all about the jelly-like emulsion layer of instant film being separated from its clear layer. Afterwards, a picture can be reattached to other surface you want. Other than that, you can enlarge or change the shape of the image during the process.

 

WHAT YOU NEEDinstant-university_yellow-border

Instant photo x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-#1

Scissors x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-#2

Soft paintbrush x 2-3

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-#3

Tray of water (in room temperature) x 1

instant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-#4

Carrier surfaceinstant-university_SFA1203-lecture-3-polaroid-impossible-emulsion-lift-workshop-#5

 

STEP-BY-STEPinstant-university_yellow-border

1. Use scissors to cut the edge off the picture.

2. Remove the whole frame. You will get a square image.

3. Peel the black plastic foil away from the image. 

4. Soak the picture into the water for few minutes.

5. Use a paintbrush to gently brush the image layer (thin emulsion layer) away from the transparent plastic foil in water.

6. Pick the plastic out from the tray. Only keep the emulsion layer in the water. Make sure your image is forward.

7. Take the carrier material you have already prepared. Gently place it underneath the emulsion layer.

8. Carefully position the image layer on top of new surface by using paintbrush. Of course, you can use your fingers for help!

9. Remove the transferred image from water. After it is taken out of the water, you can still create or remove wrinkles and move the image around or even flatten it.

10. Once you finished playing around the shape, let it dry for about 24 hours. The emulsion will stick on the new surface. And you have a Polaroid / Impossible emulsion lift!

 

IMPORTANT NOTEinstant-university_yellow-border

You have to do the emulsion lift within 2 or 3 days after the image is taken. Once the image solidifies, you will no longer be able to separate the layers.

CC 1420 Lecture 2: Daily cleaning checklist#1 – For Polaroid SX-70 camera

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-2-daily-polaroid-sx-70-camera-cleaning-title

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-2-daily-polaroid-sx-70-camera-cleaning-icon

INTRODUCTION
instant-university_yellow-border

SX-70 users may face certain kinds of problem with SX-70, and in fact, many of those are not difficult to tackle with!

In this lecture, you will learn how to daily clean your own Polaroid SX-70 camera. Do it yourself!

 

CIRCUMSTANCES

instant-university_yellow-border

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-1-film-storage-#3
Out of tune images / Light spot

 

POSSIBLE CAUSE

instant-university_yellow-border

Splotchy
Rollers

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-2-daily-polaroid-sx-70-camera-cleaning-#1

It is the most common problem that SX-70 users always face and this is possibly caused by splotchy rollers. Rollers inside the film door is a critical component for image processing. During the immediate ejection process after shooting, two rollers pushes the chemicals out of the packs at the back of film and let the chemicals to be evenly distributed on the image. When the rollers are rough, it is likely to have undeveloped spots.

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-2-daily-polaroid-sx-70-camera-cleaning-#2

Moreover, there will be chemical residue left on the rollers from time to time. The chemical residue will dry and turn into white patches and block the rollers. As a result, out of tune images or light spots may appear due to uneven roll pressure. Even worse, the camera may fail in ejecting films.

 

PRECAUTION

instant-university_yellow-border

CLEAN THE ROLLERS WITH
STERILISING FLUID REGULARLY

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-2-daily-polaroid-sx-70-camera-cleaning-#3

Instructions:

1. Get a cotton cloth and dip it with Sterilising Fluid.
2. Wipe the rollers from one side to another, until the white patches are all removed.
3. The fluid should dry itself quickly without wiping it off.
4. your camera will run like new!