HIST 1010 Lecture 2: The Polaroid magic (1920’s – 1980’s)

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INTRODUCTIONinstant-university_yellow-border

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Polaroid Corporation, which started in Cambridge, is best known for its instant films and cameras. You may not know that it’s initial market was polarised sunglasses. During this lecture, you are going to look through Polaroid’s heyday and its lasting impacts.

 

THE FOUNDER OF POLAROID – EDWIN LAND
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Land set up a research laboratory at his home in his teenage, started experiments on the first light polarisers in sheet form and to establish the applied science of polarised light. He thought that a polariser would look like a sheet of plastic or glass and that would be practical and convenient to use. In 1929, Land obtained his first patent ever.

He founded the Land-Wheelright Laboratories with his professor to continue his polarisation studies. Later this lab was renamed the Polaroid Corporation. As head of the company, Dr. Land never diversified into other businesses, sold out to another company or borrowed money on a long-term basis.

 

MILESTONESinstant-university_yellow-border

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1947

Polaroid Land Camera was demonstrated publicly

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1948

Polaroid Land Camera was put on sale before Christmas

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1950

Black and White instant film was introduced

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1960

15 second pictures and automatic exposure technology

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1963

Color film and film cartridges

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Edwin Land demonstrating Polaroid color instant photograhy (Credits: The Life Picture Collection)

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1965

Low priced Swinger

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Late 1960’s

Polaroid invited the world’s best-known photographers like Andy Warhol, Ansel Adams and William Wegman, providing them free film and studio space and asked them to take some photos and gave them few prints back in the Polaroid Artists Collection

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Andy Warhol with Polaroid SX-70

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1971

The Square Shooter was introduced

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1972

SX-70 was introduced

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Edwin Land with Polaroid SX-70 on the cover of LIFE

a pocket-sized, self-developing Polaroid camera + 1 inch thick, 7 inches long

A thin sheet contained 8 separated chemical sheets protected by an “opacifer” layer that kept out the sun’s rays while the picture developed outside the camera. Each of the 8 layers respond to a different light frequency when exposed, resulting in brilliant color. Because the dye was metallic, the finished product didn’t fade except when exposed to extreme light for prolonged periods. Polaroid’s main competitor, Kodak, has yet to master this difficult process in its own film.

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1977

Instant Home Movie camera was introduced

 

IMPACTinstant-university_yellow-border

Since Polaroid was established, the Eastman Kodak Company brought the Land polarisers as camera filters. Since Polaroid was incorporated, they began to graft polariser technology onto many products such as 3D movies and glare-reducing googles for dogs.

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The invention of instant camera changed the picture-taking habits of people around the globe. In response to his 3-year-old daughter’s bewilderment about why the camera could not produce a photo immediately, he was inspired to make “a camera that would produce developed photographs as soon as its shutter clicked”. He termed it instant photography.

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Time magazine has described the basic process for instant photography in this way: “A negative inside the camera is exposed and then brought into contact with a positive print sheet. Both are then drawn between a pair of rollers, which breaks a tiny pod of jelly-like chemicals that spread across the sheet, producing a finished picture in seconds.

During World War II (1939-1945), Polaroid designed and manufactured numerous products for military, including colored filters for rangefinders and periscopes and an infrared night viewing device polarising.

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In 1947, Land demonstrated the Polaroid Land Camera with film publicly, and started selling during the Christmas season next year. The camera was a huge success and would remain on the market for 50 years thereafter. Polaroid’s products under Land gained wide acceptance. At present, there are still millions of followers on instant photography.

HIST 1010 Lecture 1: Edwin Land – Life in an instant

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EDWIN HERBERT LANDinstant-university_yellow-border

Nationally

American

Occupation

Physicist, Scientist, Inventor 

Education

Harvard University

Famously known as

Co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation

Born

May 7, 1909

Died

March 1, 1991

 

QUOTESinstant-university_yellow-border

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“An essential aspect of creativity is not being afraid to fail.”

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“You always start with a fantasy.”

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“If you sense a deep human need, then you go back to all the basic science. If there is some missing, then you try to do more basic science and applied science until you get it.”

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“The purpose of inventing instant photography was essentially aesthetic.”

 

BIOGRAPHYinstant-university_yellow-border

Edwin Land was born in Connecticut, United States in 1909.

In 1929, when Land was still an undergraduate in Harvard University, he created polariser, an optical filter which passes light of specific polarised light and blocks waves of other polarised light, at the age of 20.
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The technology of polariser has a wide range of applications. It was used in the production of sunglasses, military hardware and color animation.
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In 1937, the Polaroid Corporation was officially established.

In 1939, Polaroid created color animation for jukeboxes, 3D glasses for movies, and the ability to dim light coming through a window.
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In 1943, Land’s 3-year-old daughter asked him why she could not see the photo immediately after it was taken. He felt a rush of inspiration.

His answer to this? 4 years later in 1947, Polaroid one-step instant camera, the world’s first instant camera was invented.
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In late 1948, this never-before-seen camera – called the Polaroid Land Camera – hit stores shelves, made an instant success and took the world by storm. It was available in sepia tones only.
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In 1950, Polaroid’s first instant camera using black and white film was born. It was popular for both military and civilian photography.

Harvard University awarded Land an honorary doctorate in 1957 for his lifetime of scientific achievement.

Polacolor, the first instant camera using color film was introduced in 1963.
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Land was a pioneer as a manager of Polaroid. In 1960’s he hired women and minorities for management and research positions ahead of many other firms.

In 1971, Land formulated and introduced Retinex theory – both the eyes and the brain are involved in the processing.

In 1972, Land introduced Polaroid SX-70 – a camera with the picture emerging from the camera automatically. It has become one of the most popular products and increased the company’s revenue by 4 times from 1961 to 1972.
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A failure of film venture called Polavision was a financial disaster to the company. Land resigned as Chairperson of Polaroid in 1980.

After retiring, Land founded the ‘Rowland Institute for Science’ to go on his research on optics. His lab eventually discovered how color is perceived in the human brain.

In 1991, Edwin Land died in Cambridge, at the age of 81.

(Credits: Polaroid)

SFA 1203 Lecture 4: Fuji emulsion lift workshop

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WHAT’S MOREinstant-university_yellow-border

In this lecture, you will learn about how to do emulsion lift using Fuji instant films. It can be made using FP-100C and 8×10 films. In fact, the process is pretty similar to the Polaroid / Impossible film. The biggest difference between the two is their emulsions. Extra works are needed during the process.

 

WHAT YOU NEEDinstant-university_yellow-border

Instant photo x 1

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Scissors x 1

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Soft paintbrush x 1

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Hair-dryer x 1

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Tray of hot water (around 70°C / 160°F) x 1

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Carrier surface
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Acetate x 1

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STEP-BY-STEPinstant-university_yellow-border

1. After taking a picture, pull film out and wait for like 1.5 minutes for full development. Then you can peel the negative image away from the positive.

2. Air dry the print until it is completely dry. Or use a hairdryer to speed up the drying process.

3. Cut all the white borders around the image.

4. Put the print face up into the hot water. Make sure the print is literally submerged. By rocking the trap back and forward, you will see some white bubbles appear on the image surface, and in about 4 minutes, the emulsion should start falling off from the print.

5. If the emulsion has not completely separating, pour some more hot water and continue the agitation. Use fingers to assist the separation, until the emulsion has totally come off.

6. Take a sheet of acetate and slide it under the emulsion, flatten the lift as much as you can.

7. Put the image on the carrier surface, at this time, the image should be in between of the carrier surface and the acetate.

8. Moisture the carrier with little water, put the acetate over the carrier where you want your image to be.

9. Carefully remove the acetate.

10. Apply the acrylic medium (glass gel medium is fine as well) with a small brush on the image area.

11. Air dry the finishing piece overnight and you are done!

SFA 1203 Lecture 3: Polaroid / Impossible emulsion lift workshop

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WHAT IS IT?instant-university_yellow-border

Emulsion lift (also known as emulsion transfer) is an interesting photographic technique. By using this method, you can transfer your image onto a completely different surface like mug, paper, t-shirt, or tote bag, for creative printmaking.

It is all about the jelly-like emulsion layer of instant film being separated from its clear layer. Afterwards, a picture can be reattached to other surface you want. Other than that, you can enlarge or change the shape of the image during the process.

 

WHAT YOU NEEDinstant-university_yellow-border

Instant photo x 1

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Scissors x 1

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Soft paintbrush x 2-3

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Tray of water (in room temperature) x 1

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STEP-BY-STEPinstant-university_yellow-border

1. Use scissors to cut the edge off the picture.

2. Remove the whole frame. You will get a square image.

3. Peel the black plastic foil away from the image. 

4. Soak the picture into the water for few minutes.

5. Use a paintbrush to gently brush the image layer (thin emulsion layer) away from the transparent plastic foil in water.

6. Pick the plastic out from the tray. Only keep the emulsion layer in the water. Make sure your image is forward.

7. Take the carrier material you have already prepared. Gently place it underneath the emulsion layer.

8. Carefully position the image layer on top of new surface by using paintbrush. Of course, you can use your fingers for help!

9. Remove the transferred image from water. After it is taken out of the water, you can still create or remove wrinkles and move the image around or even flatten it.

10. Once you finished playing around the shape, let it dry for about 24 hours. The emulsion will stick on the new surface. And you have a Polaroid / Impossible emulsion lift!

 

IMPORTANT NOTEinstant-university_yellow-border

You have to do the emulsion lift within 2 or 3 days after the image is taken. Once the image solidifies, you will no longer be able to separate the layers.

SFA 1203 Lecture 2: After effect – Manipulation by Impossible film

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WHAT IS IT?instant-university_yellow-border

Manipulation is an alternative artistic “painterly effect”. You can convert a normal picture into an Impressionism painting or oil painting! It is very creative, isn’t it?

From old films like Polaroid SX-70 Time Zero or 600 to The Impossible Project. You can create an image with unique result through manipulation, before the emulsion dries.

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“Manipulation makes your Impossible PX70 and PX680 like a little impressionist canvas.” – Carmen Palermo (Credits: The Impossible Project & Carmen Palermo)

 

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Manipulation involves taking a blunt object by applying pressure to a still developing Polaroid. The tools used to the process could be a wooden stick or Cold Clip Pen by Impossible. Sharp tool would ruin the emulsion layer so avoid using it.

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Use pressure to create a blending and slight distortion on the chemicals. Remember, the picture can no longer be restored.

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**Drawing on Impossible film is not as easy as the original Polaroid SX70 film. To do so, it is better for you to heat up the image by hairdryer first and draw harder.

CC 1235 Lecture 2: Fresh film and expired film

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YOU MAY ASK…instant-university_yellow-border

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#11How to know when the film is produced or expired?

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#12On the packaging of The Impossible Project film, there is a 4-digit number (MM.YY). And there are two types of dates: one is ‘production date’, the other is the ‘best before date’. If it is ‘production date’, then use it within 1 year since the production date. If it is ‘best before date’, then use it before the stamped dates. It is suggested that the film should be used before the date printed in order to obtain the best photographic result.

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(Credits: The impossible Project)
In 2016, The Impossible Project will gradually unify the date system. All new packages are going to be stamped with production dates regardless of box types.

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While you will find only ‘best before date’ on Fujifilm instant film. It is suggested that the film should be used before the date printed.

 

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CC 1235 Lecture 1: Choose right film for my camera

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IMPOSSIBLE EVOLUTION
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Old cameras & new films

After Polaroid Corporation announced that all instant films would no longer be produced after 2008, The Impossible Project was founded and bought the entire Polaroid factory in EnschedeNetherlands – they pledged to bring Polaroid film back.

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AT PRESENT
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The Impossible Project is the only company in the world producing instant films for classic Polaroid SX-70 and 600 cameras. Another famous Japan-based company Fujifilm produces not only digital cameras but also instant cameras and films. 

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In this lecture, you will know clearly about films that are still being widely used and how to choose the right film for your camera.

 

THE IMPOSSIBLE PROJECT
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Instant films produced by The Impossible Project can be categorised by 4 types:

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#3 Polaroid SX-70 – Color / Black & White
instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#4 Polaroid 600-Type  – Color / Black & White
instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#5 Polaroid Image / Spectra – Color / Black & White
instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#6 8×10 Cameras and Backs – Color / Black & White

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It’s easy to know which film is compatible with your camera. Simply open the film door and you will see a sticker indicating “600” type film / “SX-70” type film / “Image” or “Spectra” type film.

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Polaroid SX-70 film
is acceptable with:

– Polaroid SX-70
– Polaroid SX-70 Model 3
– Polaroid Onestep
-Polaroid Time Zero Onestep
– Polaroid 1000
– Polaroid 1000 Deluxe
– Polaroid Supercolor 1000 Deluxe
– Polaroid 3000
– Polaroid Pronto! RF

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Polaroid 600 film
is acceptable with:

– Polaroid 600 Autofocus 660
– Polaroid SLR 680
-Polaroid SLR 690
– Polaroid Integral 600 series
– Polaroid One Step close-up
– Polaroid One Step AF Autofocus Digital Exposure System
– Polaroid Sun 600 LMS Light Management System

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Polaroid Image / Spectra film
is acceptable with:

– Polaroid Spectra / Image series

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In March 2015, Impossible announced the initial launch of Generation 2.0 (Gen2.0) film for the Black & White line. Now, the newly launched Black & White films work with all types of cameras stated above. New formula of Black & White has a quicker developing time, increased contrast and tonality.

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In January 2016, Impossible launches Generation 3.0 (Gen3.0) film for the Color line. At present, it is exclusively for Impossible Member to test before general release. This generation of color film marks a significant improvement on Impossible’s current 600 color film formula. Photos develop in less half the time.

 

FUJIFILM
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Fujifilm now has 3 types of film: Instax mini film, Instax wide film and FP-film (packfilm). They are available in color films only. FP-3000B (ISO 3000 Black & White) was discontinued in May 2015.

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Instax mini film
is acceptable with:

– MiNT InstantFlex TL70
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 7S
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 8
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 25
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 50S
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 70
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 90 NEO CLASSIC
– Lomo’Instant series

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Instax wide film
is acceptable with:

– Fujifilm Instax 210 Wide
– Fujifilm Instax Wide 300
– Lomo’Instant Wide series

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FP-100C film
is designed to be used in the instant backs for medium format SLR cameras and Polaroid Land cameras. 

CC 1420 Lecture 4: Travel survival kit – For your Polaroid cameras

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INSTRUCTION
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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#1The following list offers broad guidelines; from
emergency preparedness to responsive planning
when facing certain sudden occurrences about your instant camera during travel.

Of course, if you are not expert in camera maintenance & repair, you may feel helpless in this matter – don’t forget you are going to be a certified professional! We have got you covered!

 

CHECKLIST
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 The essentialinstant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#2

Empty pack
(always bring an empty film pack with good battery along the way)

 

SYMPTOM
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1. Sticky film (i.e. when you can’t take any picture / the camera doesn’t respond)
2. The camera won’t close
3. The viewfinder goes dark

 

Possible causes

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 The mirror inside did not flip back down
instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 You didn’t press the shutter long enough to give instruction to the camera
instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 Part of camera is either blocked or jammed during exposure

 

Solution

Empty film pack testing
→ If you have a used and not-so-successful film e.g. overexposed, bring it with you when traveling. This comes in very handy when you need to diagnose problems, or you want to change film even if you have not finished the current pack.

STEP(1) Open the camera film door, you should find a small black plastic curtain. Through the black plastic curtain, find the upper most film of the film pack and insert the used film on top of it. The used film will act like a shield and block any light contacting the film.

STEP(2) Now you can remove the pack out of your camera safely.

STEP(3) Make sure the card covers the whole sheet of film. Slightly adjust after pulled the pack out. 

STEP(4) Insert the empty film pack you have prepared. Press the shutter for a few times. Take out the film pack from the camera.

STEP(5) Repeat step 4 for several times. It is like restarting the camera and setting it back to normal.

STEP(6) DONE!

 

SYMPTOM
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Some dots, weird bright or dark strips appear on image.

 

Possible cause

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 Splotchy rollers (Chemicals or dusts accumulated on rollers can cause unsatisfied out of tune images or even failure of ejection)

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Solution

Clean the rollers by yourself

STEP(1) Get a cotton cloth and dip it with sterilising fluid. You can easily find cotton and isopropyl alcohol in the first aid box in hotel room. You can also try using wipes or wet cotton.

STEP(2) Wipe the rollers from one side to another, until the white patches are all removed.

STEP(3) The fluid should dry itself quickly without wiping it off.

STEP(4) Your camera will run like new!

P.S. It is possible for both Polaroid and Impossible Project films to have too much chemicals. Remember to clean the rollers regularly!

 

SYMPTOM

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The camera does not respond at all

 

There are hundreds of feasible reasons. These are the most common ones.

Possible cause #1

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 Camera intermittent failure caused by extreme physical coldness

Solution

Try to put the camera in your coat pocket and use body temperature to warm it up.

 

Possible cause #2

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 Disconnection of film pack

Solution

Try empty film pack testing. Take out the film cartridge and insert it back. Make sure you pop the cartridge into place with some strength. Hold the front edge but not blocking the picture exit slot).

If your film was bought long time ago (more than 1 year), the battery may run out and die. It cannot be used anymore because it simply does not start the camera up.

 

SYMPTOM

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A black viewfinder

 

Possible cause

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-4-travel-survival-kit-for-your-Polaroid-cameras-#4 If your camera operates normally and can take photos, just that the viewfinder goes dark, you can try pulling the film cartridge out and put back in for several times. For better result, try empty film pack testing to reset the camera. If the problem continues, it is possible that the slingshot under the accordion has lost its elasticity.

 

Solution

What you can do is to use some objects to raise and hold up the accordion, to hold the mirror within the viewfinder. Then, you can continue shooting! However, this can only cure the symptoms, not the disease. In long term, you have to repair the camera after traveling.

CC 1420 Lecture 3: Air traveling with instant films and cameras

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WHY ANNOTATE?
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Many Instant Photographers may have the same X-ray concern about carrying undeveloped films when traveling. In this chapter, you will learn what to do and what NOT to do when traveling, without X-ray damaging to your instant films and cameras.

 

HOW?
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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#3Before departure

BRING FILMS AS CARRY-ON LUGGAGE

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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#5Unprocessed film is sensitive to light just as they are waiting to be exposed. Although Impossible Project film has a rather low ISO of 160 for SX-70, and ISO 640 for 600 cameras, X-ray of checked baggage screener may still penetrate and expose the film. Whereas carry-on baggage screener has a much milder X-ray – films under ISO800 such as Fujifilm instax mini film and instax wide film are usually not affected.

So never pack unprocessed film in baggage that will be checked. Or you can politely insist on hand-inspection of the film whenever possible.

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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#7After arrival

PHOTOGRAPHING IN EXTREME TEMPERATURES

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When you want to take photos in a freezing cold place (e.g. -10°C to -15°C / 14°F to 5°F and below), you should put the camera inside your bag or  your coat pocket and keep it near your body prior to shooting. Using your body temperature is a good way to ensure that your camera will work well.

Instant film is highly sensitive to temperature. After the camera ejects picture, immediately place it in your pocket or directly onto heat pads. A moderate room temperature of around 25°C / 77°F is optimal for developing camera pictures. Warm the photo with your body temperature is the easiest way. Low temperature will overexpose a photo. It may look bluish, lightened and less contrasted.

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#9Extreme hot guideinstant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#9

Travelling in a place with hot weather (e.g. 35°C to 40°C / 95°F to 104°F and above) is a different situation. Keeping the developing image under shade and keep it cool will help correcting the white balance and prevent reddish and yellowish to a large extent. DO NOT leave the exposing photo under direct sunlight.

Tips:
Hot temperature has a greater effect on B&W film than color. If you wish to get a better result with Polaroid cameras, snap with Impossible Color Film!

Impossible Project film can deliver good results when used within a temperature range of 13°C to 28°C / 55°F to 82°F, while 5°C to 40°C / 41°F to 104°F for Fujifilm instant film.

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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#7After arrival

SHIELDING

Even with Color Protection Film, it is possible to be overexposed under strong sunlight. The first few seconds are extremely crucial for image development. Always shield the film from light when it is ejected.

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Can I use a black card, to cover the film with a hand or quickly turn the photo upside down?

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To put a black card at picture exit slot is economical and may help, but it will not work as perfect as the Frog Tongue from Impossible Project.

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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#7After arrival

THE USE OF MANUAL FOCUS

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Some Polaroid cameras such as SX-70 Sonar, use sonar to auto focus. When you are on a coach or railway cabin, visiting in museum or aquarium, as long as there is glass between you and the object, the sonar auto focus will not work because sonar will bounce back when it hits the glass. In order to shoot through glass, simply switch to manual focus and you are good to go!

CC 1420 Lecture 1: Film storage – How to keep film in good condition

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AFTER PURCHASE
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When you purchase a fresh pack of film for your Polaroid camera, normally an unopened package is allowed to store for 12 months. For opened film, better to finish photographing within a month.

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Optimum range of temperature for Impossible Project film storage is between 15°C – 20°C (59°F – 68°F). As the film is super sensitive to light, avoid any exposure to sunlight. Otherwise it may cause undesirable chemical reaction.

For Fujifilm instant color film, keep it in the fridge at temperature below 10°C (50°F). Opened film packs can also be kept in the fridge by placing them into polyethylene or vinyl bags.

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Store your films in a cool place and avoid sunlight. Do not store your films in damp proofing box – film chemicals will dry and will no longer develop images. Before use, try to settle to room temperature if the film is placed in the fridge. If you use the film while it is still cold, the photo quality may be adversely affected by condensation.

 

AFTER CARE
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(In short run) Shading

When the photo is ejected immediately after photographing, that will be the critical moment! Shield it from light immediately.

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When developed film is exposed to strong light, the image will increase it brightness by approximately two stops. Somehow this will ruin the picture.

The best and most effective approach is to use a Frog Tongue. The frog tongue will essentially cover the photo when it is ejected, leaving it no chance at all to encounter light. Or a more economical way is to tape a black card on top of the picture exit slot. It acts similar to the frog tongue but it could be annoying to tape on and off.

After ejection, do not leave the film under direct sunlight while it is still developing. Also, do not bend, fold, or put pressure on the photo or else may cause unevenness on the image.


(In short run) Development

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Keep shielding the image from light when developing. In about 15 minutes, the image will nearly be developed and stabilised.instant-university_yellow-border

(In long run) Location

The quality of finished images will change during storage. The key is to store the image in a cool place, preferably the fridge (not freezer).
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(In long run) Temperature

Storing in crisper drawer is the optimum solution for image stability. Do not store the film under 0°C / 32°F as this may devastate images.

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(In long run) Meth
ods

A. Make good use of your fridge

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For the best results, put the photos in the fridge for 1 to 2 weeks. The temperature and humidity in crisper drawers (where to store fruits) can slower down the speed of changing colour and is effective to keep the color on films. After 2 weeks, you will find the pictures become rigid and stiff, that means the pictures have already “cooled down” and can exhibit like normal.

For Fujifilm, keep images in a dark dry and well-ventilated location away from gases. You don’t need to keep Fujifilm in the fridge like Impossible Project film.

B. Emulsion lift

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It is about removing the emulsion layer from a sheet of Polaroid / Impossible or Fuji film and transferring it onto other surfaces such as clothing, painting paper, mug etc. After that the image is forever kept. During the process of emulsion lift, you can even enlarge or change the shape of the image. Special kit is needed for emulsion lift.

C. Air the chemical

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Some will cut out 2 blank boxes behind Polaroid / Impossible image so as to fasten up the speed of drying chemicals. But after a certain period of time, the image will fade especially Black & White photos. Moreover, the back of image is unavoidably damaged thus many photographers avoid using this method.