CC 1235 LECTURE 4: Factors affecting the tones of photos

Even when we use the same Polaroid, the outcome may look so different in a sense that the pictures have various tones. Some are yellowish and reddish, while some may have the blue toned.

What to determine the tone of a picture? Is it related to the camera or the film? We list out 4 major factors to clear your mind.

1. Weather/ physical condition

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Photographer: On Chan / Location: Ethiopia, Africa

Instant film is highly sensitive to temps. When you shoot in a freezing cold place (e.g. -10°C to -15°C/ 14°F to 5°F and below), the photos tend to look bluish, lightened and less contrasted. And the heat does affect the film. Under hot weather of 35°C to 40°C/ 95°F to 104°F and above, the images all turn out with a reddish or yellowish overtone.

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Photographer: Ming Chan / Location: Hokkaido, Japan

The tone of colour varies under different temperatures. In other words, it depends on how cold/warm you are placing the photo for development. For the Impossible’s current generation of films (mid 2016), the full development takes 20-30 minutes. During this period of time, if the temperature is around 10°C to 15°C/ 50°F to 59°F, the image tends to look bluish, whereas if the temperature is above 30°C/ 86°F, the image tends to look reddish.

2. Source of light

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Photographer: Eric Luk / Camera: SLR670-S / Film: Color Film for 600

It is also related to the colour temperature of light source. Sun is actually appearing bluish in hue, but incandescent light bulbs eject light in yellow. Our eyes have the ability to compensate this colour difference but instant films don’t. So we usually find the bluish image outdoor and yellowish toned indoor shots.

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Photographer: Eric Luk / Camera: SLR670-S / Film: Color Film for 600

Instant film is daylight balanced. From sunrise to sunset, dawn to dusk, the amount of sunlight determines the tone of picture, too.

3. Batch of film

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Photographer: Simon Bernabel / Film: Color Film for 600

Different batch of film can cause a lot, too. Before mid 2015, Impossible has not come up with the new formula chemical, so the photos were still a little bit reddish and yellowish. Starting from around Apr/ May 2016, Impossible have changed the formula, more chemicals are allowed to spill over. The new films produce more bluish images.

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Photographer: Harriet Browse / Film: Color Film for 600

4. The application of filters

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The use of accessories gives the photo a special tone. For instance, the blue filter will raise the colour temperature, filling blue tones all over the canvas.

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Photographer: Ming Chan / Accessories: MiNT Lens Set (blue filter)

Therefore, please noted that the colour tone is nothing to do with the camera. It matters most with the film and the environment you are photographing.

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CC 1420 LECTURE 6: POLAROID TROUBLE SHOOTING – UNDER/OVER-EXPOSED IMAGE

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INTRODUCTION
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Controlling the exposure value (EV) could be really challenging to both beginners and experienced users. Sometimes you may find it difficult to correctly set the exposure wheel. This may result in over/ under-exposed shots.

Impossible film can be mainly classified into two types: high ISO (600) and low ISO (SX-70). Many people are confused about HOW to take a correctly exposed picture.

 

PART 1.

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Tips about setting the brightness

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To use 600 film in a default ISO100 camera(e.g. SX-70 Model 1, Model 2, Sonar, Alpha)

⇒ Use Flash (half power)/ Turn the exposure wheel all the way to darken (black) / Use ND filter

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To Use SX-70 film in default ISO100 camera

⇒ In normal case, you should keep the exposure wheel in the middle position

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To use 600 film in default ISO600 camera (e.g.SLR670a/SLR680)

⇒ In normal case, you should keep the exposure wheel in the middle position

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To use SX-70 film in default ISO600 camera

⇒ Turn the exposure wheel all the way to lighten (white)

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PART 2.

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Reasons of Under/Over-exposed image

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Film to use corresponding to indoor/ outdoor?

You are suggested to use flash high ISO film (600) indoor and low ISO film (100) outdoor. If you plan to take pictures in both indoor and outdoor, you should use low ISO film and use flash if necessary.

In a condition of very bright light, even when you use SX-70 film (ISO100 film), it is still possible to result in over-exposed images. There are 2 solutions: adjust the exposure wheel to darken, or use an ND filter and keep the exposure wheel in the middle position.

Most of the SX-70 cameras are programmed as ISO100. In most cases you should use corresponding SX-70 film (ISO100 film) as this will ensure the image is correctly exposed. If you want to use 600 film (approx. 6 times more light sensitive than SX-70 film) in your SX-70 camera, you need to put an ND filter before shooting or you will get over-exposed images.

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Temperature differs?

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Photo tends to look pale and with low contrast under cold weather.

instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#9When shooting in hot weather, the image tends to look darker and grainy.

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Shield after shooting?

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Impossible film tends to be sensitive to light. Shield the picture immediately after ejection and avoid exposure under the Sun or bright light. You can use the darkslide (the black cover that ejects immediately after you insert a new film pack) to cover the image. Or even better, use Impossible Frog Tongue to make the shielding easier. Once it is ejected, leave the picture face down for 10 minutes for Impossible B&W films, and 30 minutes for colour films. This will largely increase the successful rate of developing nice pictures.

 

REMARKS

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  1. Frog Tongue is available for all boxtype/ folding SX-70 and Image/Spectra cameras.

2. The light bulbs on top of SX-70 is the original Polaroid Flash Bar. It is a disposable flash with a 10-times use flashbulb unit. Suitable for SX-70 Camera/ OneStep Rainbow. These flash bars are no longer manufactured and have been gradually replaced by electronic flash.

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That’s why MINT created MiNT Flash Bar 2, which is a revolutionary re-usable high quality electronic flash bar device for all Polaroid folding and box-type SX-70 type cameras. It comes with 2 filters for your creativity.

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3. Lens Set for Polaroid SX-70 Cameras is also available. The set includes Fisheye, Close-up, Blue filter, Yellow filter, and ND filter. You can get as close as 12cm, take selfies with friends, get the nice blue colour of the sky, create higher contrast in B&W photos, and shoot 600 film in SX-70 cameras. It is definitely another must have item besides the flash.

CHEM 1110 Lecture 1: The Impossible evolution

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Generation 1: First Flush (Since May 2009)

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Impossible | PX 680 Color Shade First Flush (Credits: The Impossible Project)

The Black and white edition was first released, later PX 70 FF. The latter one is Impossible’s first, experimental color film. It renders astonishing greenish and blueish pastel tones.

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[ Development time ]
Approximately 15-20 minutes

*Films under the production of phase 1 – PX 70 FF, PX100(FF), PX 680 FF & PX 600(FF) have been discontinued.

 

Generation 2: Push! (Since April 2010)

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Impossible | PX 70 Color Shade Push! (Credits: The Impossible Project)

PX 70 Push! is much improved experimental version and yet the color is easier to fade out. The relatively high sensitivity of light / temperature features a whole new color system. Unless the images get peeled, otherwise they shift to blue under the ongoing chemical reaction. In a hot environment, the film turns to red or turns to partial green in a cool one.

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[ Development time ]
Approximately 4-10 minutes

*PX 70 Push has been discontinued.

 

Generation 3: PX 70 08/11, PX 70 12/11 (Since August 2011)

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Impossible | PX 100 Silver Shade UV+ Film (The Impossible Project)

This batch of films are more stabilised in development, plus the sharper images have successfully aroused the interest of Polaroid users. This eliminates the possibility of undeveloped patch, uneven distribution of chemicals and out-of-tone image, having a satisfied result in imaging.

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[ Development time ]
Approximately 10 minutes for color film &
approximately 3 minutes for black and white film

*Films under the production of phase 3 –  PX 70 12/11, PX 100 UV+, PX 600 UV+ & PX 600 UV+ Grey have been discontinued.

 

Generation 4: Cool Film series (Since June 2012)

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Impossible | PX 600 Silver Shade Cool (Credits: The Impossible Project)

The Cool film shows an improved, stable performance which becomes the most popular product at that time! Basically, the film is no longer having undeveloped patch nor out-of-tone image. The film also boosts a high level of detail and sharpness even on dark edges.

The image of cool film reminds people of old Polaroid 600-type film. It was acclaimed as a return of Polaroid era.

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[ Development time ]
Around 8-10 minutes for color film &
2 minutes for black and white film

*Films under cool film line – PX 70 Cool, PX 100 Cool, PX 680 Cool & PX 600 Cool – have been discontinued.

 

Generation 5: Color Protection (Since September 2012)

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Impossible | PX 70 Color Protection (Credits: The Impossible Project)

Impossible innovates the color protection formula which enormously improves the opacification process. As claimed by the company, it does not demand for immediate shielding of the photos after shooting, which is a revolutionary product from Impossible.

Users are suggested to use the color protection film indoor or in suburb. At the beginning of development, it is still fine to expose under light and people can directly observe the process without having an overexposed image.

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[ Development time ]
Around 25-30 minutes for color film

*Films under phase 5 – PX 70 Color Protection, PX 680 Color Protection & PX 680 Gold Color Protection – have been discontinued.

 

Generation 6: First Generation (Since late 2013)

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Impossible | Color film for SX-70 (Credits: The Impossible Project)

With a new naming system and packaging, this series keeps everything that works from the previous line, and of course, adds some subtle refinements. This generation improves the sharpness and tones with light-favourable elements.

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[ Development time ]
Approximately 30-40 minutes

*Films under phase 6 – Color Film for SX-70, B&W Film for SX-70, Color Film for 600 & B&W Film for 600 – have been discontinued and replaced by generation 2.0.

 

Generation 7: Generation 2.0 (Since March 2015)

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Impossible | B&W 2.0 Film for 600 (Credits: The Impossible Project)

With the use of Generation 2.0 emulsion formula, it offers the most vibrant, mottle-free colours with totally saturated reds, blues, greens and yellows and natural skin tones of any Impossible film to date. At present, the generation 2.0 is only available for black and white film.

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[ Development time ]
Only 5 minutes for full development. The fastest film yet.

*Films under Generation 2.0 – B&W 2.0 Film for SX-70 & B&W 2.0 Film for 600 – are currently available.

 

Generation 8: Generation 3.0 (Since January 2016)

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Impossible | Color Film for 600, White Frame 3.0 (Credits: The Impossible Project)

A new generation for color film marks a significant improvement on Impossible’s current 600 color film formula.

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[ Development time ]
Photos develop in less than half the time.

*Films under Generation 3.0 – Color Film for 600 Cameras 3.0 beta – is now exclusively for Impossible Member to test before general release.

HIST 1010 Lecture 3: “New” Polaroid Corporation (Since 1990’s)

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REVIEWinstant-university_yellow-border

Polavision did not sell well in retail shops and brought a huge financial crisis to Polaroid. Edwin Land submitted his resignation and left the company he had founded.

 

IN 1980’Sinstant-university_yellow-border

The 1980’s was a hard time to Polaroid. The company tried to reinvent itself without Edwin Land by shifting away from a dependence on consumer photography, a market that was steadily declining. It was forced to make wholesale changes. Over thousands of workers were fired and many manufacturing plants were shut down. Therefore, Polaroid sought to innovate in the declining market for instant photography.

 

IN 1990’Sinstant-university_yellow-border

In 1990’s, technology rose and dramatically changed the world of photography. 1-hour color film processing, single-used cameras from competitors, videotape camcorders, and digital cameras brought more choices to public. The rise of new technology has helped reduce the cost of print photography to a large extent.

Polaroid then turned to produce disposable cameras. At that time, many other competitors such as Kodak and Fujifilm were in the market.

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Polaroid single-use camera with built-in flash (Credits: Polaroid)

The company planned to invent camera that can produce instant photos and 35mm negatives and another one that yields instant photos with digital images. Moreover, they moved the factories to less developed countries like China and other low-wage countries to keep costs down.

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Polaroid Z2300 Instant Digital Camera (Credits: Polaroid)

 

IN 2000’Sinstant-university_yellow-border

In 2001, Polaroid released a small portable printer. It was used for advertisers like retailers and restaurants to reach cellphone users with printouts. The product brought them an extra revenue, along with sales of the device, and refills of the printout.

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Polaroid PoGo Instant Digital Mobile Printer

Unfortunately, Polaroid went bankrupt in October 2001 and announced that they would stop producing instant films and cameras. On the other hand, a group of former employees of Polaroid bought its film factory in the Netherlands and formed a new filmmaking company called The Impossible Project.

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The Impossible Project only takeovers the factory space and machines from Polaroid other than technology and techniques. So they have to create and produce new colour dyes.

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Instant films by The Impossible Project for Polaroid SX-70 and 600-type cameras

 

AT PRESENTinstant-university_yellow-border

“Polaroid has become more than a household name – it has become one of the most recognised and trusted lifestyle brands in the world.” – Scott W. Hardy, President and CEO of Polaroid

At present, Polaroid focuses in producing digital photographic products like Polaroid Snap Instant Digital Camera, Polaroid Cube Action Camera and Polaroid ZIP Instant Photoprinter. Hopefully Polaroid still has a role in the future of photography.

SFA 1203 Lecture 3: Polaroid / Impossible emulsion lift workshop

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WHAT IS IT?instant-university_yellow-border

Emulsion lift (also known as emulsion transfer) is an interesting photographic technique. By using this method, you can transfer your image onto a completely different surface like mug, paper, t-shirt, or tote bag, for creative printmaking.

It is all about the jelly-like emulsion layer of instant film being separated from its clear layer. Afterwards, a picture can be reattached to other surface you want. Other than that, you can enlarge or change the shape of the image during the process.

 

WHAT YOU NEEDinstant-university_yellow-border

Instant photo x 1

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Scissors x 1

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Soft paintbrush x 2-3

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Tray of water (in room temperature) x 1

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1. Use scissors to cut the edge off the picture.

2. Remove the whole frame. You will get a square image.

3. Peel the black plastic foil away from the image. 

4. Soak the picture into the water for few minutes.

5. Use a paintbrush to gently brush the image layer (thin emulsion layer) away from the transparent plastic foil in water.

6. Pick the plastic out from the tray. Only keep the emulsion layer in the water. Make sure your image is forward.

7. Take the carrier material you have already prepared. Gently place it underneath the emulsion layer.

8. Carefully position the image layer on top of new surface by using paintbrush. Of course, you can use your fingers for help!

9. Remove the transferred image from water. After it is taken out of the water, you can still create or remove wrinkles and move the image around or even flatten it.

10. Once you finished playing around the shape, let it dry for about 24 hours. The emulsion will stick on the new surface. And you have a Polaroid / Impossible emulsion lift!

 

IMPORTANT NOTEinstant-university_yellow-border

You have to do the emulsion lift within 2 or 3 days after the image is taken. Once the image solidifies, you will no longer be able to separate the layers.

SFA 1203 Lecture 2: After effect – Manipulation by Impossible film

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WHAT IS IT?instant-university_yellow-border

Manipulation is an alternative artistic “painterly effect”. You can convert a normal picture into an Impressionism painting or oil painting! It is very creative, isn’t it?

From old films like Polaroid SX-70 Time Zero or 600 to The Impossible Project. You can create an image with unique result through manipulation, before the emulsion dries.

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“Manipulation makes your Impossible PX70 and PX680 like a little impressionist canvas.” – Carmen Palermo (Credits: The Impossible Project & Carmen Palermo)

 

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Manipulation involves taking a blunt object by applying pressure to a still developing Polaroid. The tools used to the process could be a wooden stick or Cold Clip Pen by Impossible. Sharp tool would ruin the emulsion layer so avoid using it.

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Use pressure to create a blending and slight distortion on the chemicals. Remember, the picture can no longer be restored.

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**Drawing on Impossible film is not as easy as the original Polaroid SX70 film. To do so, it is better for you to heat up the image by hairdryer first and draw harder.

CC 1235 Lecture 1: Choose right film for my camera

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IMPOSSIBLE EVOLUTION
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Old cameras & new films

After Polaroid Corporation announced that all instant films would no longer be produced after 2008, The Impossible Project was founded and bought the entire Polaroid factory in EnschedeNetherlands – they pledged to bring Polaroid film back.

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AT PRESENT
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The Impossible Project is the only company in the world producing instant films for classic Polaroid SX-70 and 600 cameras. Another famous Japan-based company Fujifilm produces not only digital cameras but also instant cameras and films. 

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In this lecture, you will know clearly about films that are still being widely used and how to choose the right film for your camera.

 

THE IMPOSSIBLE PROJECT
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Instant films produced by The Impossible Project can be categorised by 4 types:

instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#3 Polaroid SX-70 – Color / Black & White
instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#4 Polaroid 600-Type  – Color / Black & White
instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#5 Polaroid Image / Spectra – Color / Black & White
instant-university_CC1235-lecture-1-choose-right-film-for-my-camera-#6 8×10 Cameras and Backs – Color / Black & White

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It’s easy to know which film is compatible with your camera. Simply open the film door and you will see a sticker indicating “600” type film / “SX-70” type film / “Image” or “Spectra” type film.

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Polaroid SX-70 film
is acceptable with:

– Polaroid SX-70
– Polaroid SX-70 Model 3
– Polaroid Onestep
-Polaroid Time Zero Onestep
– Polaroid 1000
– Polaroid 1000 Deluxe
– Polaroid Supercolor 1000 Deluxe
– Polaroid 3000
– Polaroid Pronto! RF

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Polaroid 600 film
is acceptable with:

– Polaroid 600 Autofocus 660
– Polaroid SLR 680
-Polaroid SLR 690
– Polaroid Integral 600 series
– Polaroid One Step close-up
– Polaroid One Step AF Autofocus Digital Exposure System
– Polaroid Sun 600 LMS Light Management System

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Polaroid Image / Spectra film
is acceptable with:

– Polaroid Spectra / Image series

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In March 2015, Impossible announced the initial launch of Generation 2.0 (Gen2.0) film for the Black & White line. Now, the newly launched Black & White films work with all types of cameras stated above. New formula of Black & White has a quicker developing time, increased contrast and tonality.

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In January 2016, Impossible launches Generation 3.0 (Gen3.0) film for the Color line. At present, it is exclusively for Impossible Member to test before general release. This generation of color film marks a significant improvement on Impossible’s current 600 color film formula. Photos develop in less half the time.

 

FUJIFILM
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Fujifilm now has 3 types of film: Instax mini film, Instax wide film and FP-film (packfilm). They are available in color films only. FP-3000B (ISO 3000 Black & White) was discontinued in May 2015.

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Instax mini film
is acceptable with:

– MiNT InstantFlex TL70
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 7S
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 8
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 25
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 50S
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 70
– Fujifilm Instax Mini 90 NEO CLASSIC
– Lomo’Instant series

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Instax wide film
is acceptable with:

– Fujifilm Instax 210 Wide
– Fujifilm Instax Wide 300
– Lomo’Instant Wide series

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FP-100C film
is designed to be used in the instant backs for medium format SLR cameras and Polaroid Land cameras. 

CC 1420 Lecture 3: Air traveling with instant films and cameras

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WHY ANNOTATE?
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Many Instant Photographers may have the same X-ray concern about carrying undeveloped films when traveling. In this chapter, you will learn what to do and what NOT to do when traveling, without X-ray damaging to your instant films and cameras.

 

HOW?
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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#3Before departure

BRING FILMS AS CARRY-ON LUGGAGE

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instant-university_CC1420-lecture-3-air-traveling-with-instant-films-and-cameras-#5Unprocessed film is sensitive to light just as they are waiting to be exposed. Although Impossible Project film has a rather low ISO of 160 for SX-70, and ISO 640 for 600 cameras, X-ray of checked baggage screener may still penetrate and expose the film. Whereas carry-on baggage screener has a much milder X-ray – films under ISO800 such as Fujifilm instax mini film and instax wide film are usually not affected.

So never pack unprocessed film in baggage that will be checked. Or you can politely insist on hand-inspection of the film whenever possible.

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PHOTOGRAPHING IN EXTREME TEMPERATURES

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When you want to take photos in a freezing cold place (e.g. -10°C to -15°C / 14°F to 5°F and below), you should put the camera inside your bag or  your coat pocket and keep it near your body prior to shooting. Using your body temperature is a good way to ensure that your camera will work well.

Instant film is highly sensitive to temperature. After the camera ejects picture, immediately place it in your pocket or directly onto heat pads. A moderate room temperature of around 25°C / 77°F is optimal for developing camera pictures. Warm the photo with your body temperature is the easiest way. Low temperature will overexpose a photo. It may look bluish, lightened and less contrasted.

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Travelling in a place with hot weather (e.g. 35°C to 40°C / 95°F to 104°F and above) is a different situation. Keeping the developing image under shade and keep it cool will help correcting the white balance and prevent reddish and yellowish to a large extent. DO NOT leave the exposing photo under direct sunlight.

Tips:
Hot temperature has a greater effect on B&W film than color. If you wish to get a better result with Polaroid cameras, snap with Impossible Color Film!

Impossible Project film can deliver good results when used within a temperature range of 13°C to 28°C / 55°F to 82°F, while 5°C to 40°C / 41°F to 104°F for Fujifilm instant film.

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SHIELDING

Even with Color Protection Film, it is possible to be overexposed under strong sunlight. The first few seconds are extremely crucial for image development. Always shield the film from light when it is ejected.

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Can I use a black card, to cover the film with a hand or quickly turn the photo upside down?

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To put a black card at picture exit slot is economical and may help, but it will not work as perfect as the Frog Tongue from Impossible Project.

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THE USE OF MANUAL FOCUS

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Some Polaroid cameras such as SX-70 Sonar, use sonar to auto focus. When you are on a coach or railway cabin, visiting in museum or aquarium, as long as there is glass between you and the object, the sonar auto focus will not work because sonar will bounce back when it hits the glass. In order to shoot through glass, simply switch to manual focus and you are good to go!

CC 1420 Lecture 1: Film storage – How to keep film in good condition

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AFTER PURCHASE
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When you purchase a fresh pack of film for your Polaroid camera, normally an unopened package is allowed to store for 12 months. For opened film, better to finish photographing within a month.

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Optimum range of temperature for Impossible Project film storage is between 15°C – 20°C (59°F – 68°F). As the film is super sensitive to light, avoid any exposure to sunlight. Otherwise it may cause undesirable chemical reaction.

For Fujifilm instant color film, keep it in the fridge at temperature below 10°C (50°F). Opened film packs can also be kept in the fridge by placing them into polyethylene or vinyl bags.

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Store your films in a cool place and avoid sunlight. Do not store your films in damp proofing box – film chemicals will dry and will no longer develop images. Before use, try to settle to room temperature if the film is placed in the fridge. If you use the film while it is still cold, the photo quality may be adversely affected by condensation.

 

AFTER CARE
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(In short run) Shading

When the photo is ejected immediately after photographing, that will be the critical moment! Shield it from light immediately.

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When developed film is exposed to strong light, the image will increase it brightness by approximately two stops. Somehow this will ruin the picture.

The best and most effective approach is to use a Frog Tongue. The frog tongue will essentially cover the photo when it is ejected, leaving it no chance at all to encounter light. Or a more economical way is to tape a black card on top of the picture exit slot. It acts similar to the frog tongue but it could be annoying to tape on and off.

After ejection, do not leave the film under direct sunlight while it is still developing. Also, do not bend, fold, or put pressure on the photo or else may cause unevenness on the image.


(In short run) Development

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Keep shielding the image from light when developing. In about 15 minutes, the image will nearly be developed and stabilised.instant-university_yellow-border

(In long run) Location

The quality of finished images will change during storage. The key is to store the image in a cool place, preferably the fridge (not freezer).
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(In long run) Temperature

Storing in crisper drawer is the optimum solution for image stability. Do not store the film under 0°C / 32°F as this may devastate images.

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(In long run) Meth
ods

A. Make good use of your fridge

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For the best results, put the photos in the fridge for 1 to 2 weeks. The temperature and humidity in crisper drawers (where to store fruits) can slower down the speed of changing colour and is effective to keep the color on films. After 2 weeks, you will find the pictures become rigid and stiff, that means the pictures have already “cooled down” and can exhibit like normal.

For Fujifilm, keep images in a dark dry and well-ventilated location away from gases. You don’t need to keep Fujifilm in the fridge like Impossible Project film.

B. Emulsion lift

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It is about removing the emulsion layer from a sheet of Polaroid / Impossible or Fuji film and transferring it onto other surfaces such as clothing, painting paper, mug etc. After that the image is forever kept. During the process of emulsion lift, you can even enlarge or change the shape of the image. Special kit is needed for emulsion lift.

C. Air the chemical

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Some will cut out 2 blank boxes behind Polaroid / Impossible image so as to fasten up the speed of drying chemicals. But after a certain period of time, the image will fade especially Black & White photos. Moreover, the back of image is unavoidably damaged thus many photographers avoid using this method.